Today, Judge Selna issued on Order ruling on Ericsson’s motion to alter or amend his FRAND ruling. (See our Jan. 3, 2018 post summarizing FRAND royalty ruling). Under the procedural posture of the Rule 52(b) motion for seeking modification of a judge’s bench trial findings of fact and law, Ericsson had to show that its proposed changes to that ruling were needed “to correct manifest errors of law or fact or to address newly discovered evidence or controlling law” or were not changes that “would not affect the outcome of the case or are immaterial to the court’s conclusions.” (Order at 2). Given this difficult standard, Judge Selna only agreed to make minor word changes to his decision, which he will soon reissue with other clerical corrections and some corrections to be made based on TCL’s Rule 52(b) motions (which were also apparently minor changes). To be clear: by “minor changes” we mean as far as significance in applying the decision to other cases between other parties; we could be mistaken and, moreover, have no comment on how significant the changes may be to the instant parties in this particular case. The next substantive step in this case will be the Federal Circuit appeal that Ericsson already filed, but that has been stayed pending the outcome of the parties’ Rule 52(b) motions. Continue Reading Judge Selna will make minor changes to FRAND ruling (TCL v. Ericsson)
Judge James V. Selna of the Central District of California (“C.D. Cal.”) recently released the redacted, 115-page public version of his Memo of Facts and Law with his FRAND determination in the TCL v. Ericsson SEP dispute concerning 2G, 3G and 4G cellular technology in the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (“ETSI”) standards along with his Final Judgment And Injunction, which injunction has detailed terms like one would find in a licensing agreement.
Judge Selna ultimately ruled that Ericsson’s licensing conduct did not breach its FRAND commitment, but that Ericsson’s proposed licensing terms were not FRAND. Judge Selna rejected the FRAND methodologies and resulting FRAND royalty rates proposed by both TCL and Ericsson. Judge Selna did his own FRAND methodology based on the methods and evidence presented by the parties, following mainly a modified version of a “top down” approach proposed by TCL. The FRAND rates determined by Judge Selna fell about half-way between TCL and Ericsson’s proposals, though direct comparison is difficult. For example, for Ericsson’s 4G SEPs, the royalty rates from the parties and court varied as to scope (e.g., blended global rate versus regional rate) and required some conversion to compare (e.g., Judge Selna computed an effective “unpacked” royalty that accounted for lump-sum payments and royalty floors in Ericsson’s offers):
4G SEP Royalty Rate
|TCL’s Proposed 4G Global Rate||0.16% (Blended global rate)|
|Court’s 4G Rates (by region)||0.450% (U.S.)
0.314% (Rest of World; No 4G Sales in Europe)
|Ericsson Effective U.S. 4G Rates
(Court calculated from Option A and B offers)
|1.074% (Option A Effective U.S. Rate) or
1.988% (Option B Effective U.S. Rate)
We provide below a bullet-list summary of some key points from the decision as well as a (rather lengthy) detailed discussion of Judge Selna’s decision. We consider this an important decision to read, and encourage you to do so, because it is one of the few decisions that describe a court’s analysis in determining a disputed FRAND royalty. But we also believe this case provides only incremental development of the case law itself given the highly factual nature of the decision in this still developing area of law. Judge Selna acknowledged that trying to obtain “precision and absolute certainty” here was a “doomed undertaking.” In other words: Learn from this decision, but do not assume it represents a definitive proper FRAND analysis and is representative of a FRAND royalty for all FRAND cases. Its one step in a continuing journey … Continue Reading Judge Selna determines FRAND Rate and enters contract-type injunction on ETSI SEPs (TCL v. Ericsson)
Ericsson and Apple reportedly have settled the patent disputes between them, including those involving standard essential patents that were pending in district courts in California and Texas as well as in the U.S. International Trade Commission. This is reported to be a 7-year agreement that involves cross-licensing as well as Apple paying royalties to Ericsson. Details of the agreement are not available.
It is not clear what spurred the settlement. The Federal Circuit’s recent CSIRO decision a few weeks ago on determining infringement damages for standard essential patents probably favored Ericsson’s royalty requests in those cases because it continued the Federal Circuit’s trend of favoring damages model that rely on actual real world licenses and dispels the myth that all patent damages models must always start with the smallest salable patent practicing unit (see our Dec. 3, 2015 post). This would have allowed Ericsson to rely more heavily on its established historical licensing program to establish royalty damages against Apple, and would have hindered a smallest salable patent practicing unit damages model that defendants have sought to assert against standard essential patents (as well as patents in general).
Yesterday the Federal Circuit issued its long-awaited Ericsson v. D-Link decision that reviewed the Judge Davis jury verdict award for RAND-obligated 802.11 standard essential patents (see our Aug. 7, 2013 post). The Federal Circuit eschews any per se rules for RAND-obligated patents–e.g., no set modified Georgia-Pacific analysis–and instructs the court to fashion damages instructions to the specific circumstances and evidence presented in a particular case. The Federal Circuit summarized its decision as follows, and remanded the case for further consideration consistent with its decision:
In sum, we hold that, in all cases, a district court must instruct the jury only on factors that are relevant to the specific case at issue. There is no Georgia-Pacific-like list of factors that district courts can parrot for every case involving RAND-encumbered patents. The court should instruct the jury on the actual RAND commitment at issue and must be cautious not to instruct the jury on any factors that are not relevant to the record developed at trial. We further hold that district courts must make clear to the jury that any royalty award must be based on the incremental value of the invention, not the value of the standard as a whole or any increased value the patented feature gains from its inclusion in the standard. We also conclude that, if an accused infringer wants an instruction on patent hold-up and royalty stacking, it must provide evidence on the record of patent hold-up and royalty stacking in relation to both the RAND commitment at issue and the specific technology referenced therein.
Note that the court’s reference to “the incremental value of the invention” refers to apportioning the value of the invention to the accused product from other non-patented features and was not referring to the different concept of the incremental value of the invention over a non-infringing alternative, which was not raised in this case.
This is a significant decision worth reading given its impact on patent damages generally–e.g., clarifying the entire market value rule and applicability of Georgia-Pacific factors–as well as the specific impact in litigating royalties for RAND-encumbered patents. A summary of the decision is provided below with generous excerpts from the decision itself given the importance thereof.
This is generally a patent friendly ruling that may increase the value of standard essential patents given the court’s rejection of some bright line rules that had been propounded that may have generally lowered the value of such patents — e.g., arguments to apply a one-size fits all RAND analysis to the smallest salable patent practicing unit based on public policy concerns beyond the actual circumstances of the case and RAND commitment that the patent owner made to the standard setting body.
Ericsson sued D-Link and others in E.D. Texas for infringing patents alleged to be essential to the IEEE 802.11(n) WiFi standard. The case ultimately was tried to a jury that found three patents infringed and awarded $10 million in damages, which was roughly 15 cents per infringing device. Judge Davis sustained the jury verdict, from which this appeal followed.
Technical Standards Background. The Federal Circuit explained the general background for industry technical standards based on an example user in a coffee shop being able to plug her laptop into the wall using a standard plug shape with standard voltage and being able to connect to the Internet through the coffee shop’s wireless network using standard protocols for wireless signal frequency, message formats, etc. The standards are needed to ensure compatibility given the many different devices and device manufacturers. Thus standard development organizations (“SDOs”) publish technical standards to ensure compatibility if the standard is adopted by “a critical mass of device developers.” The standard at issue here is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (“IEEE”) 802.11(n) “Wi-Fi” wireless standard.
Developing the standard is a collaborative process of many different entities that may include technology covered by different patents. The Federal Circuit defines such “standard essential patents” as follows:
Because the standard requires that devices utilize specific technology, compliant devices necessarily infringe certain claims in patents that cover technology incorporated into the standard. These patents are called “standard essential patents” (“SEPs”). [citing IEEE Amicus Br. 13-14]
The Federal Circuit also described two “potential concerns” of patent hold-up and royalty stacking that the RAND-obligation seeks to address, stating:
SEPs pose two potential problems that could inhibit widespread adoption of the standard: patent hold-up and royalty stacking. Patent hold-up exists when the holder of a SEP demands excessive royalties after companies are locked into using a standard. Royalty stacking can arise when a standard implicates numerous patents, perhaps hundreds, if not thousands. If companies are forced to pay royalties to all SEP holders, the royalties will “stack” on top of each other and may become excessive in the aggregate. To help alleviate these potential concerns, SDOs often seek assurances from patent owners before publishing the standard. IEEE, for example, asks SEP owners to pledge that they will grant licenses to an unrestricted number of applicants on “reasonable, and non-discriminatory” (“RAND”) terms. [emphasis added; citing IEEE Amicus Br. at 16-18].
In this case, patent owner Ericsson submitted letters of assurance to the IEEE that promised to offer licenses for all of its 802.11(n) SEPs on reasonable and non-discriminatory terms (“RAND”). Specifically, Ericsson pledged to “grant a license under reasonable rates to an unrestricted number of applicants on a worldwide basis with reasonable terms and conditions that are demonstrably free of unfair discrimination.” The parties agreed that Ericsson was bound by this commitment for the three asserted SEPs.
The ‘568 Patent. The asserted ‘568 Patent is directed to having a data packet header field that identifies what type of data is in the data packet–e.g., voice, video or data. This allows packets to be prioritized for when to transmit them over limited bandwidth, such as giving a higher priority to real-time voice or video data that suffer from transmission delay more than other types of data, such as downloading a file. This patent was alleged to cover the 802.11(n) traffic identifier (“TID”) field used in a data packet header to indicate the priority level of the data in the packet.
The ‘215 Patent. The asserted ‘215 Patent concerns a particular way of sending an “Automatic Repeat Request” (“ARQ”) to indicate what packets were not received so that the sending device will resend them. In the ‘215 Patent, a new “type identifier field” (“TIF”) is provided to indicate what format the ARQ field is in–e.g., is the ARQ simply the identification number of a missing packet or is it special coded bit-sequence denoting several missed packets. This patent was asserted to cover the 802.11(n) “Multi-TID subfield” of the packet header that indicates what type of feedback response is in the “BlockAck” field of the header.
The ‘625 Patent. The asserted ‘625 Patent concerns a way for the transmitting device to tell the receiving device that it does not need to wait for specific packets it may have missed during a data reception window (which would cause the receiving device to reject all other incoming packets), but to keep moving forward its data reception window to accept all transmitted packets. This is helpful for certain types of data, such as real-time voice or video data, where it may be better to keep the conversation going rather than get stalled waiting for missed packets. In contrast, for other types of data it may be important to receive all sent packets, such as in downloading a file so that you ultimately receive an exact copy of that file. This patent was asserted against the 802.11(n) requirement that all packets should be received without using a reception window.
Accused Products. The accused products include laptop computers and routers (“the end products”) that used 802.11(n)-compliant wireless chips made by Intel.
District Court Proceedings. In 2010, Ericsson brought suit in E.D. Texas asserting nine patents alleged to be essential to 802.11(n). Intel, who supplied the WiFi chip for the products, intervened. At trial, Ericsson asserted five patents. The jury found that the three patents above were infringed and awarded $10 million in past damages–about 15 cents per infringing device. Judge Davis then had a bench trial on some RAND issues and ruled on JMOL motions that ultimately sustained the jury verdict (see our Aug. 7, 2013 post).
Federal Circuit Decision
Judge O’Malley authored the opinion, joined by Judge Taranto (except for a non-RAND issue) and Judge Hughes.
Infringement/Validity. The Federal Circuit first went through challenges that the patents were not infringed or were invalid. The Federal Circuit ruled substantial evidence supported the jury finding that the ‘568 and ‘215 Patents were infringed, but reversed the finding of infringement of the ‘625 patent. This included an interesting issue for the ‘568 Patent concerning the Fantasy Sports line of cases dealing with whether there is infringement by a device simply because it is capable of performing a function even if there is little evidence that the claimed function is actually used, stating:
In sum, when the asserted claims recite capability, our case law supports finding infringement by a “reasonably capable” accused device on a case-by-case basis particularly where, as here, there is evidence that the accused device is actually used in an infringing manner and can be so used without significant alterations.
This may be a common issue for standard essential patents, because standards often have optional features that end products ultimately may not use, but must have the capability if they are to be deemed standard compliant–e.g., must be compliant to put the WiFi logo on the box.
The Federal Circuit also ruled that substantial evidence supported the jury’s verdict that the ‘625 Patent was not invalid, which appears to be the only invalidity challenge on appeal.
Entire Market Value Rule (“EMVR”). With respect to damages, the Federal Circuit first considered D-Link’s challenge to Ericsson’s damages expert relying on licenses tied to the entire value of the licensed product, rather than the smallest salable patent practicing unit within the licensed product, where Ericsson did not dispute that the patent claims are practiced entirely within the Wi-Fi chips that are components within the end products. The Federal Circuit described the EMVR as having two separate parts: (1) a “substantive legal rule” that the “ultimate reasonable royalty”–i.e., combination royalty rate and royalty base–“must be based on the incremental value that the patented invention adds to the end products”; and (2) an “evidentiary principle” applied to the choice of the royalty base that is intended “to help our jury system reliably implement” the substantive legal rule of apportionment. The Federal Circuit explained this latter evidentiary principle as follows:
The principle, as applicable specifically to the choice of a royalty base, is that, where a multi-component product is at issue and the patented feature is not the item which imbues the combination of the other features with value, care must be taken to avoid misleading the jury by placing undue emphasis on the value of the entire product. It is not that an appropriately apportioned royalty award could never be fashioned by starting with the entire market value of a multi-component product–by, for instance, dramatically reducing the royalty rate to be applied in those cases–it is that reliance on the entire market value might mislead the jury, who may be less equipped to understand the extent to which the royalty rate would need to do the work in such instances. Thus, where the entire value of a machine as a marketable article is “properly and legally attributable to the patented feature,” the damages owed to the patentee may be calculated by reference to that value. Where it is not, however, courts must insist on a more realistic starting point for the royalty calculations by juries–often, the smallest salable unit and, at times, even less.
The Federal Circuit ruled there was no error in allowing expert testimony on the challenged licenses at issue here. Following its rationale in VirnetX (see our Sep. 17, 2014 post) that concerned comparable licenses in general, the Federal Circuit ruled that any concerns about the licenses proffered here go to the weight, and not admissibility, of those licenses:
This court has recognized that licenses may be presented to the jury to help the jury decide an appropriate royalty award. Prior licenses, however, are almost never perfectly analogous to the infringement action. For example, allegedly comparable licenses may cover more patents than are at issue in the action, including cross-licensing terms, cover foreign intellectual property rights, or, as here, be calculated as some percentage of the value of a multi-component product. Testimony relying on licenses must account for such distinguishing facts when invoking them to value the patented invention. Recognizing that constraint, however, the fact that a license is not perfectly analogous generally goes to the weight of the evidence, not its admissibility. In each case, district courts must assess the extent to which the proffered testimony, evidence, and arguments would skew unfairly the jury’s ability to apportion the damages to account only for the value attributable to the infringing features.
The Federal Circuit also noted the practical issue that licenses generally are negotiated without considering the EMVR (e.g., smallest salable patent practicing unit), so too strict a rule on admissibility could preclude reliance on any actual real-world licenses, often deemed the best indication of what are reasonable licensing terms:
As the testimony at trial established, licenses are generally negotiated without consideration of the EMVR, and this was specifically true with respect to the Ericsson licenses relating to the technology at issue. Makring real world, relevant licenses inadmissible on the grounds D-Link urges would often make it impossible for a patentee to resort to license-based evidence. Such evidence is relevant and reliable, however, where the damages testimony regarding those license takes into account the very types of apportionment principles contemplated by Garretson [v. Clark, 111 U.S. 120, 121 (1884)). In short, where expert testimony explains to the jury the need to discount reliance on a given license to account only for the value attributed to the licensed technology, as it did here, the mere fact that licenses predicated on the value of a multi-component product are referenced in that analysis–and the district court exercises its discretion not to exclude the evidence–is not reversible error.
The Federal Circuit, however, did counsel district courts to give cautionary instructions if requested and explain the importance of apportionment:
We do conclude, however, that, when licenses based on the value of a multi-component product are admitted, or even referenced in expert testimony, the court should give a cautionary instruction regarding the limited purposes for which such testimony is proffered if the accused infringer requests the instruction. The court should also ensure that the instructions fully explain the need to apportion the ultimate royalty award to the incremental value of the patented feature from the overall product.
The Federal Circuit noted that simply relying on Georgia-Pacific factors–e.g., factors 9 and 13 that allude to apportionment–is not enough, but a separate instruction should be used in future cases.
The Federal Circuit also ruled that D-Link had waived its challenge to Ericsson’s counsel having referred to the total cost of the laptop when discussing the royalty rate. D-Link had only objected to the licenses (not the counsel statement), referred to its end product value itself during cross-examination and did not raise the issue in post-trial motions.
The Federal Circuit’s ruling here on the entire market value rule should provide significant guidance on the “smallest salable patent practicing unit” debate for patents in general, as well as for standard essential patents. Recall that in other SEP litigations involving the 802.11 WiFi standard, a dispute has been whether the royalty base should be the end product or the WiFi chip component within that end product. For example, in Innovatio, Judge Holderman used the WiFi chip as the royalty base given a failure of proof by the patent holder to apportion value of the invention to the end product. In CSIRO, Judge Davis used the end product as the royalty base because limiting the base to the cost of the WiFi chip would not capture the value of the patented technology.
The Federal Circuit’s emphasis on the Rule 403 jury prejudice “evidentiary principle” also may provide guidance on application of the entire market value rule. For example, both the Innovatio and CSIRO cases were bench trials in which Rule 403 prejudice concerns are less prevalent and, thus, might tend to allow more flexibility in referring to the end product as the royalty base, rather than the smallest salable patent practicing unit. Further, the Rule 403 evidentiary principle is not an issue in actual, arms-length licensing negotiations between sophisticated market participants. So actual negotiated licenses for RAND-encumbered patents may properly refer to the end product as the royalty base even though that might be precluded under a Rule 403 evidentiary basis in litigating the RAND rate before a jury on those same patents. Such a disconnect between reasonable real-world practices and packaging a case for the jury may be problematic where the jury is asked to consider whether a RAND commitment was breached based on the license terms offered in actual negotiations (where the Rule 403 evidentiary principle is not applied) and the litigated RAND rate (where the Rule 403 evidentiary principle may be applied).
No Per Se RAND-Specific Modified Georgia-Pacific Analysis. The Federal Circuit considered the issue of an appropriate RAND royalty rate “an issue of first impression”, stating knowledge of only three other district court decisions on the issue: Judge Robart’s Microsoft v. Motorola decision (on appeal to the Ninth Circuit), Judge Holderman’s Innovatio decision (settled) and Judge Whyte’s Realtek v. LSI jury decision (on appeal to the Ninth Circuit). If you follow our blog, you know there is also a Judge Davis bench trial decision in CSIRO v. Cisco (see our July 28, 2014 post).
At the outset, the Federal Circuit cautioned about over-reliance on all factors enumerated in Georgia-Pacific, even when not all factors are relevant:
Although we have never described the Georgia-Pacific factors as a talisman for royalty rate calculations, district courts regularly turn to this 15-factor list when fashioning their jury instructions. Indeed, courts often parrot all 15 factors to the jury, even if some of those factors clearly are not relevant to the case at hand. And, often, damages experts resort to the factors to justify urging an increase or a decrease in a royalty calculation, with little explanation as to why they do so, and little reference to the facts of record.
The Federal Circuit explained that many Georgia-Pacific factors are not applicable to RAND-encumbered patents, stating:
For example, factor 4 is “[t]he licensor’s established policy and marketing program to maintain his patent monopoly by not licensing others to use the invention or by granting licenses under special conditions designed to preserve that monopoly.” Because of Ericsson’s RAND commitment, however, it cannot have that kind of policy for maintaining a patent monopoly. Likewise, factor 5–“[t]he commercial relationship between the licensor and licensee”–is irrelevant because Ericsson must offer licenses at a non-discriminatory rate.
Several other Georgia-Pacific factors would at least need to be adjusted for RAND-encumbered patents–indeed, for SEP patents generally. For example, factor 8 accounts for an invention’s “current popularity,” which is likely inflated because a standard requires the use of the technology. Factor 9–“utility and advantages of the patented invention over the old modes or devices”–is also skewed for SEPs because the technology is used because it is essential, not necessarily because it is an improvement over the prior art. Factor 10, moreover, considers the commercial embodiment of the licensor, which is also irrelevant as the standard requires the use of the technology. [emphasis added]
Thus the district court erred by giving the jury instructions on Georgia-Pacific factors that were not relevant, “including, at least, factors 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10.” The Federal Circuit noted that referencing irrelevant factors alone may not be reversible error, but remand in this case will be necessary anyway given other errors. Further, the Federal Circuit explained that the specific jury instructions should be tailored to the specific facts and circumstances of the case, finding it “unwise” to have a single modified Georgia-Pacific rule specific to all RAND-encumbered patents:
To be clear, we do not hold that there is a modified version of the Georgia-Pacific factors that should be used for all RAND-encumbered patents. Indeed, to the extent D-Link argues that the trial court was required to give instructions that mirrored the analysis in Innovatio or Microsoft, we specifically reject that argument. We believe it is unwise to create a new set of Georgia-Pacific-like factors for all cases involving RAND-encumbered patents. Although we recognize the desire for bright line rules and the need for district courts to start somewhere, courts must consider the facts of record when instructing the jury and should avoid rote reference to any particular damages formula.
The Federal Circuit’s ruling here, thus, gives significance guidance in all cases on use of the Georgia-Pacific factors in general and the need to tailor jury instructions to the specific circumstances and evidence presented. And it plainly rejects rote application of a modified Georgia-Pacific analysis to SEPs. Rather, as with other patents, determining a RAND royalty rate will depend on the specific evidence presented in that particular case.
Consider Actual RAND Commitment. Consistent with the focus on the actual facts and circumstances presented by the particular case, the Federal Circuit explained that the district court erred by generally instructing the jury to consider Ericsson’s RAND obligations, rather than instructing the jury about what those specific RAND obligations were, stating:
Trial court’s should also consider the patentee’s actual RAND commitment in crafting the jury instructions. … The district court should have turned to the actual RAND commitment at issue to determine how to instruct the jury. In this case, Ericsson promised that it would “grant a license under reasonable rates to an unrestricted number of applicants on a worldwide basis with reasonable terms and conditions that are demonstrably free of unfair discrimination.” Rather than instruct the jury to consider “Ericsson’s obligation to license its technology on RAND terms,” the trial court should have instructed the jury about Ericsson’s actual RAND promises. “RAND terms” vary from case to case. A RAND commitment limits the market value to (what the patent owner can reasonably charge for use of) the patented technology. The court therefore must inform the jury what commitments have been made and of its obligation (not just option) to take those commitments into account when determining a royalty award. [emphasis in original]
The Federal Circuit’s decision here thus brings the focus more on what the patent owner actually committed to do, rather than on some general public policy of what a RAND commitment should be.
Apportionment. The Federal Circuit considered two special apportionment issues for SEPs:
First, the patented feature must be apportioned from all of the unpatented features reflected in the standard. Second, the patentee’s royalty must be premised on the value of the patented feature, not any value added by the standard’s adoption of the patented technology. These steps are necessary to ensure that the royalty award is based on the incremental value that the patented invention adds to the product, not any value added by the standardization of that technology. [emphasis in original]
The Federal Circuit noted that this may not be a precise science and “the jury should be told of its obligation to approximate the value added by the patented invention and that a degree of uncertainty in setting that value is permissible.” Also worth noting is that the Federal Circuit’s reference to “the incremental value that the patented invention adds to the product” should not be confused with the “incremental value” the patented invention has over non-infringing alternatives, which is a totally different issue not discussed in this opinion.
The Federal Circuit noted that, in this case, the patented functionality of the two infringed patents were directed to only a small portion of the 802.11(n) standard and that some 802.11(n)-compliant end products do not use that functionality. This is similar to computing damages for patents that cover only a small part of a device, and the jury should be instructed accordingly:
Just as we apportion damages for a patent that covers a small part of a device, we must also apportion damages for SEPs that cover only a small part of a standard. In other words, a royalty award for a SEP must be apportioned to the value of the patented invention (or at least to the approximate value thereof), not the value of the standard as a whole. A jury must be instructed accordingly. … [I]f a patentee can show that his invention makes up “the entire value of the” standard, an apportionment instruction probably would not be appropriate.
Because SEP holders should only be compensated for the added benefit of their inventions, the jury must be told to differentiate the added benefit from any value the innovation gains because it has become standard essential.
The Federal Circuit used the Realtek court’s jury instruction as illustrative of this point, where the jury was instructed it “should not consider LSI’s advantage resulting from the standard’s adoption, if any. However, you may consider any advantage resulting from the technology’s superiority.”
The Federal Circuit’s ruling here leaves some ambiguity in how to apply it. The general purpose in apportioning the value of the patent to the standard appears to be a check that patented technology making only a nominal contribution to the standard does not improperly capture the value of the entire standard simply because the technology is in the standard. But, of course, the ultimate issue to a licensee is the value of the patented technology to the licensed product, which product may not use or need all functionality provided by the standard. For example, encryption of the WiFi signal may be important to some products that may be used in public places to protect the transmitted information, but may not be important to other products that use their own encryption scheme. That was the case in the Microsoft v. Motorola case that led Judge Robart to attribute little value to encryption patents for the Xbox products that did their own encryption for transmissions from the Xbox all the way through the WiFi connection and Internet to a remote server. Judge Robart also had weighed the value of those patents to the standard itself, but it was not clear how that actually was applied in the case and the more controlling determination appeared to be the value to the licensed product, as is typically the case for all patents. So it is not clear how a jury is to apply apportioning the value of the patent to the standard itself–in conjunction with apportioning the value of the patent to the accused product–beyond a rough check that value is not being attributed to the mere fact that the patented technology is in the standard.
Need Evidence of Patent Hold-Up/Royalty Stacking. The Federal Circuit agreed with the district court’s decision not to instruct the jury on patent hold-up or royalty stacking because there was no evidence of either. Absent such evidence, an instruction would not be “necessary nor appropriate”:
In deciding whether to instruct the jury on patent hold-up and royalty stacking, again, we emphasize that the district court must consider the evidence on the record before it. The district court need not instruct the jury on hold-up or stacking unless the accused infringer presents actual evidence of hold-up or stacking. Certainly something more than a general argument that these phenomena are possibilities is necessary. Indeed, “a court should not instruct on a proposition of law about which there is no competent evidence.” Depending on the record, reference to such potential dangers may be neither necessary nor appropriate.
The Federal Circuit ruled there was no evidence of patent hold-up here, such as a showing that the patent holder started seeking higher royalty rates after the 802.11(n) standard was adopted. Further, there was no evidence of royalty-stacking here, where D-Link did not present any evidence of other licenses it had taken under 802.11 patents: “The mere fact that thousands of patents are declared to be essential to a standard does not mean that a standard-compliant company will necessarily have to pay a royalty to each SEP holder.”
On this latter point, its worth noting that patent owners typically do not declare patents “to be essential to a standard”; rather, they typically submit letters of assurances or declarations that they will license the patent on RAND or other terms if the patent ends up being essential to the standard. This is a practical issue, such as letters of assurance often are submitted before the standard is finalized so one may not know what the adopted standard will cover or there may be disagreements or uncertainty as to what a particular patent actually may cover (some patents alleged to be essential to a standard often are found not to be in litigation).
Hypothetical Negotiation Date. The Federal Circuit noted that it was not addressing the date of the hypothetical negotiation–i.e., whether it should be at the time the standard was adopted or the time of infringement–because D-Link did not request such a jury instruction. This goes to the issue whether non-infringing alternatives may include alternatives available at the time that the standard was adopted, as was considered by Judge Robart in Microsoft v. Motorola and Judge Holderman in Innovatio (modified to consider only alternatives that the SDO actually considered).
Reversed and Remanded. Given the various errors identified above, the Federal Circuit vacated the RAND determination and remanded the case back to the district court for further proceedings consistent with the decision.
Last summer, we reported on a jury verdict and post-trial rulings in favor of SEP patent holder Ericsson in its infringement suit against several manufacturers of WiFi-compliant products. As we noted, the jury awarded several million dollars for infringement of Ericsson’s 802.11-essential patents. Thereafter, several defendants took an appeal to the Federal Circuit, which is still pending.
Earlier this week, the district court granted Ericsson and defendant Belkin’s joint motion to dismiss the case with prejudice as to Belkin. According to the motion, Ericsson and Belkin “settled their claims against one another . . . on the record, and on the eve of the jury returning its verdict in this matter.” “To comply with that settlement agreement, Ericsson and Belkin  seek to dismiss their respective claims with prejudice, and to have the final record in this case reflect their settlement and dismissals.”
According to the Order, “[b]ecause the jury was deliberating when Belkin and Ericsson announced their settlement, and because Belkin and Ericsson had yet to present the Court with their now-filed agreed upon dismissal, the Court did not alter the jury verdict form and entered judgment so as to not delay proceedings, including the appeal that the other defendants in the case have now taken.” The dismissal order “shall in no way affect or alter the judgment as to the other defendants in this action other than Belkin or have any effect on the existing appeal to which Belkin is not a party.” The Court vacated the final judgment as to Belkin, and ordered Ericsson and Belkin to cover their own attorneys’ fees, costs of court, and expenses.
Four parties have responded to the ITC’s request for statements on the public interest regarding ALJ Essex’s Initial Determination in Inv. No. 337-TA-868 (see our July 2, 2014 post), all addressing the ALJ’s FRAND analysis rejecting arguments against exclusion orders for standard-essential patents and addressing the obligations held by potential licensees. Three of the responses, submitted by Ericsson, the Innovation Alliance, and Senator Robert P. Casey, Jr. (D-PA), support ALJ Essex’s analysis, whereas Microsoft takes the position that SEP owners should not be entitled to exclusion orders on FRAND-encumbered patents.
Statement’s Supporting ALJ Essex’s FRAND-Defense Analysis
Ericsson’s Statement. Ericsson agrees with ALJ Essex’s analysis, specifically supporting three findings: (1) FRAND licensing obligations apply to both innovators and implementers; (2) exclusion orders are available where SEP owner has engaged in good faith negotiations, offered a license on FRAND terms, and poses no threat of hold-up; and (3) courts and other decision making bodies should consider whether an implementer failed to negotiate toward a FRAND license, posing a hold-out threat to the patent owner. Ericsson participants in several SSOs and is both a licensor and licensee of many SEPs. Ericsson has made significant investments in employees, R&D, and intellectual property related to standards-compliant technology. The FRAND regime “ensures that those implementing a standard are able to secure access at a fair cost, while those providing innovative technology for the standard are able to secure a fair return on their investments.” Ericsson agrees with the ALJ’s “proportionate focus on the obligations of the implementer to earnestly seek an amicable royalty rate” during the course of a good faith negotiation. Ericsson then supports the proposition that exclusion orders should be available when the SEP holder has negotiated in good faith and further states that “exclusion orders should also be considered when the implementer has not negotiated in good faith (i.e., there is hold-out).”
Innovation Alliance’s Statement. Focusing on the pro-consumer and pro-economic benefits derived from patent protection and SSO participation, the Innovation Alliance’s response “commends the ALJ for developing a comprehensive record with respect to the FRAND issues in this investigation and for making explicit findings related to the presence or absence of patent hold-up or reverse hold-up with respect to patents that are subject to a FRAND licensing requirement.” The IA specifically notes that, without exclusionary relief, implementers are “incentivized to engage in ‘reverse hold up'” in which a patent holder is unable to recover its own R&D costs. The IA further commended the ALJ’s acknowledgement of the patent hold-out problem by which those benefiting from patented technology can choose to infringe a SEP and later demand a FRAND rate; the public interest favors exclusion orders to protect and enforce valid and infringed SEPs.
Senator Casey’s Statement. Pennsylvania Senator Robert Casey also submitted a statement concerning the public interest, “writing to express [his] views on the importance of innovation to our national economy, particularly with respect to small businesses, such as InterDigital, who are significant contributors to U.S. private sector employment.” Noting InterDigital’s investment in research facilities and employees, Sen. Casey’s letter notes that the patent’s principal purpose is to encourage and protect innovation, noting that intellectual property-intensive industries supported at least 40 million U.S. jobs in 2010 and represented 34.8% of total GDP. Writing “[t]he Commission must be mindful of the significant benefits to consumers from standards-setting activities and of the need to continue incentivizing voluntary participation in standard-setting organizations,” Sen. Casey argues that holders of FRAND-committed patents should not be precluded from obtaining exclusionary relief.
Statements Criticizing ALJ Essex’s FRAND Analysis
Microsoft’s Statement. Unlike the other statements submitted to the ITC, Microsoft’s letter warns against “the severe, long-term, and avoidable harms” caused by exclusion orders for FRAND-encumbered patents. Referring to its earlier July 7, 2012 comments on the public interest, Microsoft argues that exclusion orders should not be granted on FRAND-encumbered patents, relying upon Judge Posner’s recent denial of injunctive relief to Motorola on a FRAND-committed patent (see our April 25, 2014 post for an analysis of that decision). Microsoft argues that the public interest balance is shifted from the side of the patent owner upon assertion of an SEP and that InterDigital should not be permitted to use a threat of injunctive relief to increase royalty rates:
By assuming its FRAND obligations, InterDigital freely gave up exclusionary remedies in favor of a reasonable royalty in to have its technology incorporated into technical standards. InterDigital put its patents on the store shelf for a FRAND price, and they are available to anyone anywhere in the world willing to pay a true FRAND value. Having done so, InterDigital has no “recourse to the equity power of the Commission.”
Microsoft further argues that litigating FRAND-encumbered patents before the ITC harms the public interest, in this case by providing InterDigital with hold-up leverage and threat of an exclusion order that could adversely affect the U.S. phone operating system market. Microsoft argues that even if the ITC issues an exclusion order in the InterDigital case, enforcement should be delayed for one year to mitigate the harm to the public interest and provide an opportunity “to appeal the ITC decision, to determine a FRAND rate…, or to explore design-around possibilities before the harsh impact of a potential exclusion order.”
UPDATE (July 28, 2014):
Senator Pat Toomey’s Statement. Pennsylvania Senator Patrick J. Toomey also submitted a statement on the public interest on July 9, 2014, though a copy of the letter was not available until last week. Sen. Toomey’s letter expresses “strong support” for the protections afforded by Section 337 investigations and urges the Commission “to strongly consider InterDigital’s petition for relief from foreign imports that violate their intellectual property.” The letter notes that InterDigital employs “high skilled workers in Pennsylvania who are on the cutting edge of mobile innovation” and that its business model depends on licensing revenues from equipment manufacturers. Absent “adequate remedies for imported goods that use their patents without paying for them,” the letter argues companies like InterDigital will be deterred from “taking bets on future research and development” to the detriment of “American innovation and job creation.”
Qualcomm and Nokia weighed-in on the Ericsson v. D-Link appeal yesterday, each filing amici curiae briefs with the Federal Circuit. The parties’ positions favored the patent owner, though each adopted different approaches to the issues on appeal. Qualcomm focused on the fact-specific contractual nature of RAND commitments that patent owners rely on based on an each standard setting organization’s (SSO’s) specific intellectual property rights (IPR) policies and the patent owner’s submitted letters of assurance (LOAs). Nokia supported the district court’s decision not to give jury instruction on patent stacking and holdup. See our August post for more information on the case, pre-appeal, and Judge Davis’ RAND dismissals.
This round of amici curiae briefing comes a little less than three months after the IEEE submitted its own amicus brief regarding RAND commitments, which we discussed back in December.
Qualcomm’s brief emphasizes that RAND commitments are voluntary, contractual obligations held by an SEP holder to an SSO under which the SEP holder agrees to make its SEPs available to SSO participants on RAND terms. At the outset, Qualcomm acknowledges that its amicus position on RAND issues is adverse to that taken by some appellants in this case to whom Qualcomm, as the supplier of chips used in some of the accused products, owes certain indemnity obligations. Qualcomm concedes that it “has an indirect interest in a finding of no liability and a financial interest in minimizing any damages awarded”, but nevertheless has weighed in “even if that means that its views on RAND may align in part with those of [Ericsson].”
Distinguishing policy arguments and competition concerns raised by other amici, Qualcomm’s brief argues RAND obligations are created by contract and as such should be determined by reference to the actual commitment and intent of the parties:
Each RAND commitment is made in the context of the particular intellectual property rights (“IPR”) policies of the particular SSO, and must be interpreted in that context. How a court should interpret a contract is well established: it should look to the express terms of the agreement and, where necessary, to other indicia of the intent of the parties.
Addressing Judge Davis’ decision, Qualcomm states that the district court correctly considered the particular terms of IEEE policies when determining the scope of Ericsson’s obligations, as a court’s RAND determination should be drawn from the terms and intent of the relevant SSO agreement giving rise to RAND, the background against which the RAND agreement was made, and specific facts relevant to the underlying agreement. Discussing the goal of both IEEE and ETSI IPR policies that SEP licenses me made available to implementers on reasonable terms, Qualcomm argues that the term “reasonable” in “reasonable and nondiscriminatory” does not mean anything different than the well-known “reasonable royalty” rubric found Georgia-Pacific and similar law outside the U.S. and that no evidence indicates there is “some other type of ‘reasonable'”.
Qualcomm asserts that proposed rulings designed to suppress SEP valuation should be rejected as inconsistent with the RAND contract. Asserting that “the District Court properly looked to both the language and the intent of Ericsson’s RAND commitment to determine the meaning of the RAND commitment, and appropriately instructed the jury to hold Ericsson to that commitment”, Qualcomm argues against rules proposed by other amici that improperly assert that:
- courts determining SEP value should consider only license executed before the patent was adopted into the standard;
- a “reasonableness” analysis must account for the total number of SEPs for that standard;
- “non discriminatory” analysis must look at average prices, costs, and operating profit across all industry participants; and
- the determination of royalties must use the industry-wide average operating profit for the smallest saleable patent practicing unit over the damages period.
Qualcomm asserts that there is no reason to suppose that rational industry participants should conduct a royalty stacking analysis as part of determining a reasonable royalty rate. Qualcomm reasons that such an analysis improperly pre-supposes that only a fixed share of the product price can be attributable to the intellectual property in the product, leading to the erroneous conclusion that the more patents a product practices, the less each SEP holder should receive, irrespective of the impact of each patent’s individual contribution. Arguing against this analysis, Qualcomm states:
IP is an input into a product like any other. Adding a second input does not reduce the value contribution of the first. Adding hand-crafted leather upholstery to a car does not reduce the value contribution (or the cost) of the engine. Considered in the context of tangible components, the idea of using (much less requiring) a “cost stacking” analysis to determine how much a manufacturer should have to pay for a particular component is nonsensical. Likewise, the fact that a standard incorporates more value-adding patented technologies does not reduce the value added by (or the cost to develop) any one of those technologies. The value of an SEP will always be lost in this analysis; an approach that necessarily ignores the value of the specific contribution cannot be correct.
Emphasizing that each proposed rule would be inconsistent with the underlying contract giving rise to the RAND obligation, Qualcomm stresses “[t]he hypothesis that all SSO IPR policies and RAND commitments under those policies should be judicially redefined in a manner that would declare widespread industry practice and innumerable existing licenses to be ‘unreasonable’ cannot be maintained.”
Qualcomm asserts that RAND commitments do not require the licensing of components, that industry practice has applied royalties to an entire device, and that the particular license obligation owed by a SEP holder is drawn from the language of the agreement at issue. Whereas other amici argued that Ericsson was required to grant RAND licenses to component suppliers or chip manufacturers, Qualcomm’s brief directs attention to the IEEE agreement that requires Ericsson to grant RAND licenses to “fully compliant” products incorporating the components into a larger system or device. Qualcomm also notes the ETSI IPR Policy is among other SSO policies that have adopted “fully compliant” limitations on RAND commitments, the ETSI policy seeking FRAND licenses to “any system or device fully conforming to a standard”.
Advocating that the Federal Circuit affirm the district court’s decision, Nokia’s brief argues that determining a RAND royalty is an inherently contextual task that requires a trier of fact to consider a number of factors, including the nature of the standard and patents at issue. Nokia states that Judge Davis’ decision not to provide the jury with Defendants’ requested jury instructions on patent stacking and holdup is entirely consistent with such a mandate, noting that in this case the jury was provided extensive instruction on how to calculate a reasonable royalty, including Georgia-Pacific factors relevant to stacking and holdup issues. Nokia further notes that the district court specifically instructed the jury to “ensure that any damages award is consistent with and does not exceed the amounts permitted under Ericsson’s RAND obligations.”
Disputing the notion that patent holders “systematically enjoy excessive royalties by stacking patents and by threatening to hold up licensees”, Nokia asserts that the RAND framework helps to avoid systematic stacking and holdup by requiring patent holders to license SEPs on RAND terms, preventing patent holders “from extracting exorbitant royalties.” Nokia argues that whether stacking and holdup, or reverse holdup, are concerns depends on the facts and circumstances of a particular case and that a patent should not be devalued simply because it has been included in an industry standard.
Directly addressing Defendants’ discarded jury instructions, Nokia argues that Defendants presented no evidence that stacking and holdup presented a concern in this case and that the requested instructions were argumentative and unnecessary in the context of the entire jury charge. From Nokia’s brief:
Instructing the jury to prevent hold-up also would have been superfluous. Filing suit for infringement and asking a jury to award a reasonable royalty plainly is not a form of holdup. It was the jury’s task to determine a reasonable royalty consistent with RAND. By definition, such a royalty is not an improper holdup.
Likewise, the requested instructions on royalty stacking were designed to give content to the RAND standard beyond what the standard itself requires. Defendants wanted to instruct the jury to adjust the rate in this case according to some hypothetical “aggregate value” of all royalties required to license patents that cover a given standard (although they presented the jury with no evidence concerning what that value might be).
Ericsson announced a global cross-license settlement agreement with Samsung for patents relating to GSM, UMTS and LTE standards, which settlement includes two ITC investigations and litigation in E.D. Tex. that we have followed. Reports estimate that, in addition to exchange of consideration such as cross-licenses, Samsung will make an upfront payment to Ericsson of $650 million along with on-going royalty payments over a period of years.
In an order dated January 16, 2014, the Competition Commission of India (“CCI”) ordered another investigation into Ericsson’s licensing of cellular patents that are subject to FRAND obligations, which investigation will parallel a similar investigation of Ericsson that CCI ordered on November 12, 2013 (discussed in our prior post). The rationale for this new investigation, requested by Intex Technologies, is the same as that for the prior investigation requested by Micromax Informatics and we refer you to our prior post’s discussion thereof.
One difference concerns Ericsson’s refusal to disclose what licensing terms it gave to other licensee’s that the prospective licensee requested to assess whether the license offer to them is fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory. In the Micromax investigation, the parties were in litigation and Ericsson refused to produce the other comparable licenses in a mediation of that dispute, leading CCI to state that “Refusal of OP [Ericsson] to share commercial terms of FRAND licenses with licensees similarly placed to the informant [Micromax], fortified accusations of the Informant, regarding discriminatory commercial terms imposed by the OP.”
In this new investigation, the rub comes from an NDA required by Ericsson to negotiate a license with requester Intex. Intex asserts that Ericsonn’s NDA prevents them from consulting with vendors of components that implement the standard, allowed Ericsson to claim it could not produce license agreements with others given similar NDAs entered with them, and required adjudicating any disputes in another country. CCI found that the NDA was problematic for several reasons, including allowing Ericsson to hide whether its licensing terms were discriminatory as compared to other licenses it granted on the same FRAND-obligated standard essential patents:
Charging of two different license fees per unit phone for use of the same technology prima faci is discriminatory and also reflects excessive pricing vis-à-vis high cost phones. NDA thrust upon the consumers by OP [Ericsson] strengthens this doubt as after NDA, each of the user of SEPs is unable to know the terms of royalty of other users. This is contrary to the spirit of ‘applying FRAND terms fairly and uniformly to similarly placed players.’ Transparency is hallmark of fairness. Both forcing a party to execute NDA and imposing excessive and unfair royalty rates prima facie was abuse of dominance and violation of section 4 of the Act. Imposing a jurisdiction clause debarring Informant [Intex] from getting disputes adjudicated in the country where both parties were in business and vesting jurisdiction in a foreign land prima facie was also an abuse of dominance.
Concerns about improper NDA requirements are not unique to this CCI investigation. The recent cable operator lawsuit against Rockstar includes concerns about Rockstar requiring NDA terms in negotiating licenses under patents it acquired from Nortel, which patents include standard essential patents subject to standard-setting organization (SSO) obligations such as RAND, FRAND or royalty-free licensing obligations.
As with the prior Ericsson investigation, CCI’s order makes clear that these are just initial observations, not final expressions of opinion, and the investigation should proceed without being swayed by the initial observations.
Two weeks ago, we posted about non-party IEEE’s amicus curaie brief in Ericsson v. D-Link, et al., an appeal pending before the Federal Circuit. The appeal, initiated by defendants D-Link, Dell, Acer, Gateway, Netgear and Toshiba, challenges a jury’s damage award against the defendants for infringement of plaintiff Ericsson’s patents that are claimed to be essential to the IEEE’s 802.11 standard (SEPs). Recently, non-party American Antitrust Institute (AAI) filed its own amicus curaie brief in the appeal, challenging the District Court’s instruction to the jury to apply an unmodified version of the 15 Georgia-Pacific factors in calculating damages for infringement of alleged SEPs.
AAI argues that the Georgia-Pacific factors “are not an appropriate basis for instructing a jury how to determine damages for infringement of a standard-essential patent encumbered by a RAND commitment, at least not without significant modification.” According to AAI, the district court’s wholesale adoption of the Georgia-Pacific factors in its jury instructions was error that “was not cured by the court additionally instructing the jury that any damages award be consistent with the patentee’s RAND obligation, without explaining what the RAND obligation entails.”
AAI asserts that the purpose of a patent holder’s RAND commitment “is to mitigate the problem of patent holdup, namely obtaining royalties on the basis that implementers are locked into the standard rather than on the basis of the value of the patented technology itself.” AAI goes on to argue that the value of the patented technology
“is properly understood as the incremental value of the patented technology over the next best alternative at the time the technology was under consideration for inclusion in the standard (the ex ante value), subject to a ‘royalty stacking’ constraint, i.e. that the combined royalties on all of the patented technologies included in the standard must not undermine implementation of the standard.”
AAI points out that commentators have criticized the use of the Georgia-Pacific factors “as indeterminate at best for determining a reasonble royalty for patents generally.” Those factors, according to AAI, are “particularly inadequate for setting a RAND royalty.” This is because they “do not explicitly focus on the ex ante value at the time the standard is adopted nor expressly take into account royalty stacking,” both of which are integral to the primary purpose of a RAND commitment. Specifically, setting a RAND rate based on the ex ante value of the patented technology at the time the standard is set — rather than just before infringement under Georgia-Pacific — “is necessary for consumers to benefit from competition among technologies to be incorporated into the standard — competition that the standard setting process itself otherwise displaces.”
AAI then cites to the modified Georgia-Pacific factors used by the courts in Microsoft v. Motorola and In re Innovatio as potential cures for the alleged shortcomings in the standard Georgia-Pacific analysis in capturing the ex ante value of the patented technology at the time the standard is adopted: “In adopting a substantially modified version of the Georgia-Pacific factors, the district courts in Microsoft and Innovatio recognized that this ‘pre-inclusion’ ex ante vantage point is appropriate, although they also referred to the time of infringement.” Specifically, both courts held that the parties would consider alternatives that could have been adopted in lieu of the asserted SEPs at the time the standard was set, and those potential alternatives could potentially “drive down the royalty that the patent holder could reasonably demand.”
AAI also argues that the jury must be instructed that any damage award should be measured so as to avoid royalty stacking, which “is not completely captured in the bilateral hypothetical negotiation contemplated by Georgia-Pacific.” This is because SEP holders “collectively have an ex ante interest in preventing royalty stacking and ensuring that the overall royalty burden of the standard is reasonable.” “[A]bsent explicit instructions, a jury will not understand the significance of royalty stacking and may, for example, reasonably believe that Georgia-Pacific’s first factor—proof of an established royalty for the patents in suit—does not permit the RAND royalty to vary depending on the number of patents (and patentees) essential to the standard, as stacking concerns would otherwise suggest.”
Finally, AAI argues that several of the Georgia-Pacific “factors are either flatly inconsistent with a RAND commitment or are irrelevant.” For example, quoting Judge Robart’s decision in Microsoft v. Motorola, AAI asserts that Georgia-Pacific Factor 4, which considers the licensor’s policy of maintaining his patent monopoly by not licensing others or by granting licenses under special conditions designed to preserve the monopoly, “‘is inapplicable in the RAND context because the licensor has made a commitment to license on RAND terms and may no longer maintain a patent monopoly by not licensing to others.'”
AAI further asserts that:
“[w]hile the remaining Georgia-Pacific factors may be relevant to the RAND determination and understandable to juries if modified in ways suggested by the district courts in Microsoft and Innovatio, those factors that involve consideration of the benefits or profits earned by the licensee from the sale of the ‘product made under the patent’ (factors 6, 8, 10, 11) are problematic insofar as they obscure the need to ‘apportion the defendant’s profits and the patentee’s damages between the patented feature and the unpatented features’ . . . in a context where the SEP holder is not entitled to a royalty based on the value derived from the incorporation of the patented technology into the standard, or to discriminate among licensees.”
As in Microsoft and Innovatio, the district court in Ericsson’s case should modify “Georgia-Pacific factors 6, 8, 10, and 11 [to] expressly to take into account ‘only the value of the patented technology and not the value associated with incorporating the patented technology into the standard.'” This will potentially prevent the factfinder from mistakenly taking into account, “as a factor in the RAND analysis, the relative value of the functionality provided by the standard itself (here, Wi-Fi) to the licensee’s products.”